Wells College

International Studies 350

Comparative Environmental Policy Analysis

Fall 2002



Instructor:  Tukumbi Lumumba-Kasongo

Cleveland Hall 108

Telephone:  364-3220

Office Hours: 

Office Hours: Monday: 11:00am-12:00 p.m.

                        Tuesday: 10:00am-12:00 p.m.

                        Thursday:  2:00-4:30 p.m.



Required Readings


Andrew Gouldson and Joseph Murphy, Regulatory Realities, London Earthscan Publications, 1998.


Vajpeyi Dwivedi, Environmental Policies in the Third World, Greenwood, 1995.


W. M. Adams, Green Development: Environment and Sustainability in the Third World, Route, 1995.


Zachary A. Smith, The Environmental Policy Paradox, (third edition), Prentice Hall, 2000.


Course Description


Policy analysis is not only about examining technicalities of how to solve a given puzzle but it is also about the understanding of the factors that influence people or policymakers to perceive the problem and the solution the way they do.


Environmental problems are complex issues that cannot be solved by governments and specialized social and technical groupings alone. In the past 10 years or so, these issues have been addressed and popularized through international conferences organized by the United Nations, the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the scientific communities, and local social forces. Social and popular movements and green party politics dealing with the complexity of the environment have emerged, especially in the North.


Although there is, in general term, an agreement that environment has become an essential policy issue that has to be taken into account in allocation of resources and in policy and political debates at the national level, there are disagreements among policymakers and heads of governments and states, also between the countries in the North and those in the South, concerning the kind of policy formulation and implementation that is needed on the environment at the international level. 


The policy articulation on the environment has been influenced by the dominant ideologies of the states, the level of economic and industrial development, cultural and educational dimensions of the people in a country, and the nature of the civil society.


In this course, we will examine comparatively how different states have approached environment as a policy issue, what resources have been allocated to it, what laws have been adopted to support it or to punish those who violate the environmental laws, and what outcomes have emerged toward the understanding of the environment.  Our objectives are to understand the basis for policy making, the nature of tools given to, or appropriated for, policy formulation and implementation, and chances for assessing the successes or failures of such a policy.




-Attendance and active participation in all class activities are required. They will count for 10 % of the total grade;


-Any unjustifiable absence will be penalized;


-First Assignment: Each student will write a critical paper of 6-8 typed and double-spaced pages on “the Perception, Definitions, and Policy of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the environmental crisis and conservation of natural resources, including animal species, plants, forest, and water, between the 1940s and 1970s.” The paper will count for 20% of the total grade. It is due on October 8, 2001


-Second Assignment: Each student will write a paper on “the policy priority of the Russia on environment at large since the end of Cold War (1991) and Japan in the same period.” What are the frameworks of their policies? How are the policies articulated and what has been the impact of those policies on economic development, the market forces, and human health? The length of the paper is 10 double-space pages, including the footnotes and references. The paper will count for 20% of the total grade. It is due on November 15, 2001.


-Third Assignment: Each student will make a research presentation on comparing the environmental policies of two countries that we did not have any opportunity to discuss in the seminar.  One country has to be among the industrial countries and another has to be from the less industrialized world.  In this presentation, students will have to deal with how policies were formulated and implemented (forces involved and the kind of debates that took place, if any) and the constraints that have influenced both processes and benefits associated with policy implementation.  Students are free to choose any period and any issue of the environmental policy.  The presentation will be on the last day of the classes. It will count for 20% of the total grade.


-Fourth Assignment: Each student will write a final paper on one of the following broad topics:


“The Free market and environmental policies; ”


“The impact of the environmental policies on gender division of labor in given country;”


“Complexity for making environmental policy in either a democratic or a totalitarian society;”


“ Emerging socialist or nationalist policies on environment in the post-Cold War Era;


“Environmental Policy and its impact on the grassroots initiatives;”


“Law and Environmental policy;”


“Environmental policies and multinational corporations;”


“Environmental reforms and environmental racism;”


“Global warming: views and perceptions of scientists and policymakers.”


The length of the paper is 17 pages double space, including the footnotes and references. This paper will count for 30% of the total grade. It is due on December 13.




9/3-Requirements, Literature Review, and Theoretical Issues on Environment, Economy and Policy Reform


9/10-Environment, Innovation, and Technological Change

Regulatory Realities, chapters 1 and 2.


9/17-The concept of Green Development

      The Environmental Policy Paradox, chapter 1 and Green Development, chapters 1 and 4.


9/24-The Public and Environmental Awareness and Arguments on Regulatory Environment

The Environmental Policy Paradox, chapters 2 and 3.


10/1-The Environmental Impacts of Development

      Green Development, chapter 6.


Fall Break 10/6-9



10/15-Planning, Policy, and Politics on the Environment: Issues and Arguments

            Green Development, chapter 7.


10/22-A Mandatory Regulation on Pollution in the European Union

Regulatory Realities, chapter 3.


10/29-United Kingdom’s Industrial Environmental Policy

            Regulatory Realities, chapter 5.


11/5-The Netherlands’ Industrial Environmental Policy

            Regulatory Realities, chapter 6.


11/12-Environmental Policies in India and China

Environmental Policies in Third World, chapters 3 and 4.


11/19-Environment Policies and Politics in Chile and Mexico

Environmental Policies in Third World, chapters 8 and 9.


Thanksgiving Break 11/21-25


11/27-Environmental Issues and policies in Africa

Environmental Policies in Third World, chapters 6 and 7.



12/3-Class Presentations


12/10-Class Presentations and Conclusion on Environment Management

The Envionmental Policy Paradox, chapter11.


Final paper is due on 12/13.